DIM ESEE 2016 OVERVIEW
INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO BLASTING

DIM ESEE 20162018-01-30T10:37:41+00:00

INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO BLASTING

ABOUT DIM ESEE 2016

One of the great challenges of mining within this day and age is that general societal acceptance of the mining sector is rather low due to factors such as the noise of detonation, the vibrations of the blasting and fly rock. The first edition of the program focuses on the wider societal and economic acceptance of drilling and blasting and aims at educating mining engineers (postgraduates, professionals, academic staff) on the newest innovative, tested techniques of environmentally friendly blasting. Participants will gain expertise on how to reduce noise, vibration and avoid fly rock in theory and practice and thus be able to carry out mining that is sustainable in the future. Topics in the 2016 edition will include an introduction to blasting, blasting theory, fragmentation, blast design, the legal framework of blasting, and discuss health, safety and environmental measures. Especially within the ESEE Region, which has a long standing tradition in the field of mining and vast natural resources, it is of upmost importance that mining engineers are educated with the most up to date techniques in order to access the resources available.

DIM ESEE 2016 – INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO BLASTING

PROGRAM OVERVIEW

LOCATION:

Inter University Centre (IUC), Dubrovnik, Croatia

DURATION:

One week of full-time studies and excursions (October 23th – 28th 2016)

ACADEMIC FIELD:

Mining Engineering, Engineering

TARGET GROUP:

Master and PhD students, Postgraduate, Professionals, Academic Staff

TUITION FEE:

800 € – Includes Academic Program, Accomodation and Half-Bord)

SCHOLARSHIP:

The first 10 participants from the ESEE region (East- and South-East Europe) will get a funding of 400 EUR/participant from the EIT Regional Innovati-on Scheme ESEE of the EIT RawMaterials.

RECOMMENDED CREDITS:

ECTS-Credits

EXAM TYPES:

Seminar Paper, Project Work

SOCIAL PROGRAM:

Excursion, City Tour, Coctail Party…

DIM ESEE 2016 – INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO BLASTING

LECTURERS

Title: Dipl.Ing. Dr. mont
Faculty: Chair of Mining Engineering and Mineral Economics
Department: RIC ESEE
Phone: +43-3842-402-7600
Email: alfred.maier@unileoben.ac.at

Alfred Maier graduated from 1983 the Montanuniversitaet in Leoben (Dipl.-Ing.) and in 2007 he completed his Dissertation. In 1988 he graduated Master of Laws.
From 1977 – 1996 he was in the Austrian military (last position: company commander). Dr. Maier worked at the Berghauptmannschaft for 11 years from 1983. From 1994 – 2006 he worked in the Ministry of Economics as the head of the division Mining Technology and Safety. He also worked as a government representative for the safety and occupational health in coal mining and other mineral producing industries, moreover he was the government representative in the Raw Materials Supply Group for the EU. From 1999 – 2007 he worked as a lecturer at the Montanuniversitaet Leoben for occupational safety and law for blasting practice. 2002-2006 he was the deputy of the Head of department for mining in the Ministry of Economics. Afterwards Dr. Maier worked as the head of department for energy and mining for 5 years. He was the president of the Bergmännischer Verband Österreichs. Since 1999 he has been working at Montanuniversitaet Leoben for Chair of Mining Engineering and Mineral Economics as a lecturer for protective regulations and since 2014 Dr. Maier is the head of EIP on Raw Materials, Knowledge & Innovation Community EIT RawMaterials with focus on East- and Southeast Europe. During his career Dr. Maier was also a member of various organisations. For example: Steering Committee of the Verband der Sprengbefugten, disciplinary panel and employment examination office in the Ministry of Economincs, directorate energy institute of the Wirtschaft GmbH.

Title: Sr.scientist, Dr.mont.h.c., Dr.techn.
Faculty: Chair of Mining Engineering and Mineral Resources
Phone: +43-3842-402-2009 or +43-664-80898-2009
Email: finn.ouchterlony@unileoben.ac.at

Finn Ouchterlony graduated from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden in 1980 (Tekn.Doktor) and received his honorary degree from Montan-universität Leoben (Dr.mont.h.c.) in 2007. His skills include fracture mechanics, blast damage and blast fragmentation. From 1967 to 1984 he was employed by Atlas Copco and worked mainly at the Swedish Detonic Research (SveDeFo) labs in Vinterviken. During 1987-1993 he was head of the SveDeFo labs, during 1993-2003 head of the blasting research at SveBeFo and 2003-2010 head of the Swedish Blasting Research Centre, Swebrec. He has held academic positions at Luleå Univ. Technology (1985-88), Yamaguchi Univ., Ube, Japan (1991-92), Luleå Univ. Techn. (2003-2010) and Montanuniversität Leoben (2011-2014). Finn Ouchterlony was co-author of the EU funded projects “Downhole Abrasive Jet Cutting Operations in Quarrying, Mining and Civil Engineering” (BE-1671; 1996-99) and together with Prof Peter Moser of “Less Fines Production in Aggregate and Industrial Minerals Industry “ (GRD-2000-00438; 2001-2004). He has a long experience of working with industry related explosives and blasting projects. He was the co-ordinator of the ISRM working group WG on Fracture Toughness Testing of rock, which led to suggested methods in 1988. He is a member of the editorial boards of the journals: i) Blasting and Fragmentation (ISEE), ii) Int. J. Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and iii) Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. He is a member of the int. organizing committee of the triennial Fragblast symposia. He discovered the Swebrec distribution during the Less Fines project. This led to the Douglas Hay award in 2005.

Associate professor
Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering
Department of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering
Pierottijeva 6, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia
GSM: +385 91 6195859
Email: mario.dobrilovic@rgn.hr

Date of birth: 28 January 1972. Married, Father of one child. Associate professor at the Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, Vice Dean. Subjects: “Drilling“, “Blasting I“, ”Blasting II”, “Underground Chambers and Tunnels“ – graduate study and “Methods for Civil Blasting“, “Excavation of Underground Chambers and Tunnels“ – postgraduate study. Head of Laboratory for Testing Explosives. Associate of Croatian NB for explosives for civil uses and pyrotechnics, Head of Laboratory for Seismograph Calibration. Field of science activity: civil blasting technologies, industrial application of explosives, demolition by blasting and environmental influence of blasting. Field of work and interest: surface, underground and industrial blasting technologies, demolition by blasting, civil explosives and initiating devices performance and environmental influence of blasting.

Title:
Faculty:
Department:
Phone: +43 699 13585280
Email: mark.ganster@austinpowder.at

Mark Ganster was born in Leoben / Austria and is now 41 years old. First he received a multidisciplinary education at a higher technical college in Mechanical Engineering. After obtaining a MSc. Diploma in Applied Geosciences from the Mining University of Leoben/Austria he joined RHI-company as a mine geologist. During his time at University he was working for several tunnelling companies in foreign countries as a blasting engineer. He also supported seismic projects for geophysical exploration of gas and water. Since 2004 Mark Ganster is with Austin Powder International. Until 2014 he was responsible for the Drilling and Blasting Operations in Austria as well as for global technical assistance. From 2015 till now he is in the role of “manager blasting technology Europe” for Austin Europe. At the moment he is finishing his MBA study in “International Business” at the Danube University Krems.

PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS:

  • Winner of Innovations Award 2012 of the International Tunneling Association
  • Board Member of the Austrian Blasters Association
  • Member of the Austrian Open-Pit-Mining Association
  • Member of the International Society of Explosives Engineers

PUBLICATIONS:

  • M. Ganster, H. Krenn: ISEE 2013: Controlled Blast induced Liquefaction of water saturated sands using 250 m long horizontal holes and electronic detonators, Dallas, TX, USA
  • R. Ivanova, M. Ganster, P. Moser, F. Bauer: ISEE 2012: Development of a new Contour blasting system using bulk emulsions, Nashville, TN, USA
  • M. Ganster: XXIX Conferencia International de Mineria Acapulco, Mexico 2011: Experience with the use of site sensitized emulsion explosives in underground mining operations in Austria
  • M. Ganster: ISEE 2010: Controlled hard rock trench blasting close to a buried gas pipeline under pressure, Orlando, FL, USA
  • P. Moser, M.Ganster, A. Gaich: ISEE 2007: Experience with and benefits from the use of 3D Stereophotogrammetry for blast design and control, Nashvile, TN, USA
  • M.Ganster: EFEE 2007: Economical aspects on contamination levels in blasted material with SSE in tunnel operations, Vienna, Austria

Principal Research Scientist
Brodarski institute
Av. V. Holjevca 20,
10002 Zagreb, Croatia
GSM: +385 91 6195859
Email: suceska@hrbi.hr

Dr. Muhamed Suceska, born in 1954, studied Chemical Technology at the Technical Military Academy and Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in Zagreb, Croatia and received his PhD in 1991. After graduation he worked as a Research Fellow and Lecturer in the Technical Military Academy (1982-1991). He has been the Head of Laboratory for Thermal Analysis at Brodarski Institute, Zagreb since 1993. He also holds the positions of President of Scientific Council (1998-2009), and Scientific Advisor (1999-present). He was invited as a Principal Research Scientist to the Energetics Research Institute (EnRI), Singapore in 2009 to help build capability in Modeling and Simulation. His research interests cover thermal analysis and characterization of explosives, reaction kinetics, thermal initiation, and combustion and detonation chemistry and physics, with a current focus on numerical modeling of thermal initiation and detonation of explosives. Dr Suceska is a member of several scientific bodies and organizations. He is also a member of the scientific and organizing committees of several international conferences (IPS, NTREM, IPO Conference, ESHP, CEEC-TAC, etc.). He is the Subject Editor of the Central European Journal of Energetic Materials (CEJEM) and an editorial board member of Global Journal of Analytical Chemistry and High-Energetic Materials. He has been invited to speak at international conferences and has conducted guest lectures at several research institutions and universities worldwide including Germany, China, India, South Africa, Turkey, etc. Dr Suceska has published 4 books and 90 papers in international peer reviewed journals and conference proceedings. He developed several computer programs for modeling combustion and detonation. His program EXPLO5, for theoretical prediction of performance of explosives, is now used in more than 35 research laboratories worldwide.

Title: Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.mont.
Faculty: Chair of Mining Engineering and Mineral Economics
Phone: +43-3842-402-2000 or + 43 664 52 67 929
Email: peter.moser@unileoben.ac.at

Peter Moser graduated with a doctorate from Montanuniversitaet Leoben in 1989 (Dipl.-Ing. 1983) and completed his Habilitation for Mining Engineering in 1998 (Ao.Univ.-Prof.). From 1983 to 1989 he worked Junior Researcher and from 1989 to 1995 as Senior Researcher at the Chair of Mining Engineering and Mineral Economics of Montanuniversitaet Leoben. In the latter period he was the head of the working “Measurement and testing in mining operations”, worldwide research on the development and design of underground hard rock mines; research in rock blasting and breakage (3rd – 4th FP programs (Brite Euram)). In the years 1996 to 1998 he was Assistant Professor with a focus on underground mining and rock excavation and was teaching in mining and mineral economics (Brite Euram, Growth, Tacis and Amadeus). From 1998 to 2006 he was Associate Professor for Mining Engineering and Mineral Economics at Montanuniversitaet Leoben and involved in the development and implementation of new research programs in blasting and rock fragmentation, partner and coordinator in EU research projects (5th – 6th FP programs). From 2006 to 2010 he was Head of the Department of Mineral Resources and Petroleum Engineering at Montanuniversitaet Leoben. Since 2008 he is full professor at the Chair of Mining Engineering and Mineral Economics at Montanuniversitaet Leoben. He has held a visiting professorship at “Centre de Géotechnique et d’exploitation du sous-sol Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau, in 1998/1999. He is currently in his second period as Vice Rector for International Relations and Infrastructure at Montanuniversitaet Leoben (since 2011). Since 2013 he is also a high level steering group member of the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials.

Title: Professor
Faculty: Faculty of Construction
Department of Construction, Geotechnics and Geomechanics
Karl Marx Av., 19, 49600 Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine
GSM: +380503426198
Email: valeriysobolev@rambler.ru

Valerii Soboliev was born in 1947. Mining engineer, Dr.Sci.Tech., Professor, Academician of Academy of Sciences of the Higher School of Ukraine. Beginning of labor activity – 1965. He has the underground work experience. In 1969-1974 he was the student of National Mining University. Postgraduate study – 1977-1980; has defended the master’s thesis in 1983, doctor’s – in 1990 on a specialty “Solid-state physics”. He was the director of the la-boratory of geology and physics of minerals, the chief research officer. He is the professor since 1993, has the academic and state awards. The chairman of scientific council in a direction “High-energy processing of materials” of general technical branches of Academy of Sciences of the Higher School of Ukraine, a member of the ASM International, the European association of experts in dynamic processing of materials “DYMAT”, a member of three specialized councils about defense candidate and doctor’s, the supervisor of studies of post-graduate students and doc-toral candidates. He is the expert in the field of shock-wave treatment of solids, phase and structural transformations in materi-als. Circle of scientific interests: experimental and theoretical mineralogy, cumulative action of energy of hy-drodynamic currents, physics and chemistry of surface, gas and dynamic effects in rocks. He teaches the physics of explosion, the technology and safety of blasting, the physics of rocks, etc in the National Mining University. He has published more than 650 scientific papers, 90 inventions (copyright certificates of the USSR, patents of Ukraine and Germany), 18 monographies and textbooks. He has established new physical effects in the field of fundamental sciences such as: “Property of natural crystals of diamond to keep the genetic canter during the growth”, “The Phenomenon of the solid-phase epi-taxy of diamond”, “Property of the abnormal high sensitivity of complex salts of metals to detonation trans-formation at action of laser radiation”, “Property of the outburst-prone gas-coal substances to keep unstable equilibrium of a chemical condition of mobile components (gas, radicals) with motionless components of coal organic mass in the conditions of hydrostatic compression”, “The Phenomenon of formation of a spirally-vortical current of substance behind front of a curvilinear shock wave”, etc.

Assistant professor
Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering
Department of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering
Pierottijeva 6,  10002 Zagreb, Croatia
Phone: +385 1 553 5870
Email: vjecislav.bohanek@rgn.hr

Vječislav Bohanek was born in 1978. In 2005 he graduated in mining engineering and in 2013 he obtained his PhD in mining engineering, both at the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering. He started to work as a Research Assistant in 2006, since 2010 as a Teaching Assistant, and since 2018 as an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering in Zagreb, at the Department of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. He teaches the following courses: Blasting, Drilling, Surface Mining and Tunnels, and Underground Chambers. As an author or co-author he published a number of articles in journals and international conferences. He is a quality manager at the Laboratory for testing of explosives and the Laboratory for the Calibration of Equipment for Monitoring Blasting Effect on the Environment. He has worked on many projects in the field of drilling and blasting, demolition blasting, and expert reports on the influence of blasting on the surrounding structures. He is a member of: European Federation of Explosives Engineers, European Forum of Notify Body for explosives and pyrotechnic article, Member of the Croatian Association of Mining Engineers, Member of the Croatian technical committee 511, Explosives for civil use, Member of the Croatian technical committee108, Mechanical vibration and shock.

Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering
Department of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering
Pierottijeva 6,
10002 Zagreb, Croatia
GSM: +385 91 1945214
Email: zvonimir.ester@rgn.hr

Born in Crvenka on 21st of April 1945. Attended Primary school and Gymnasium in Zagreb where enters Mining department of the Faculty in 1964, graduates on 1972.

  • 1972.-1973.; Manager of surface mine – Kordun Mines
  • 1973.-1976.; Manager of “Očura” Quarry, IGM Lepoglava
  • 1976-2010.; Assistant, assistant professor, associate professor on “Blasting” and “ Underground construction and tunnels” course
  • Author of “Blasting I – explosives, characteristics and testing methods” Compulsory LiteratureCo-author, with M. Dobrilović “Blasting I – Lab Exercise Manual to Works and Safety”
  • Mentor to , Master` thesis and Member of committee for Master` thesis (6) and doctors (4) dissertations,
  • Active in Scientific Projects, Head of Project on “Emulsion Explosives and Initiating Components Testing”,
    Completed Lab plans, Technical schematic of procedures, Equipment Manifest and Technical & Safety Parameters of Laboratory (unique in Croatia), according to EN 45001 Standard, where equipment is imported or built to own specifications (prototypes),
  • Laboratory of Mining department of faculty of Mining, geology and Petroleum engineering was built under HRN EN 45001 standard and was awarded with licence No. 511-01-90-UP/I19-1998-2/3 (issued from State Commission on Norms and Measurement) for testing and appraising of explosives (attests),
  • Attended international congresses, with Papers presented, on tunnels (London, Basel), blasting (Las Vegas, Nashville, New Orleans, Pardubice, Podbanski, Munich, Prague and Brighton) and several in Croatia,
  • Member of Croatian Mining Engineers Association, Croatian Tunnel Society and International Society of Explosives Engineers. Member of European Federation of Explosives Engineers.
  • Member of TO 511 Technical Board “Explosives for Civil Usage”,
  • Member of TO 82 Technical Board “Mining” in State Commission on Norm and Measurement,
  • Head of Oversight on blasting in “Sv. Rok”, “Mala Kapela” and “Grič” tunnels, and Head of 200 projects in mining and blasting

DIM ESEE 2016 – INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO BLASTING

LESSONS

We are able to produce safety when operating with 3 resistance lines:

  • Perfect design – perfect implemented (Are we perfect?)
  • Mindfulness and flexibility in operations. (Are we mindful?)
  • Effective crisis management in case of emergency. (Are we prepared?)

In all countries of the EU, the risks prevailing at work sites have to be assessed and evaluated. The determination of relevant measures to be adopted in order to control risks is just as obligatory as is the documentation in a safety and health protection document (Council Directives 89/391/EEC and 92/104/EEC). Without safe and routine-type blasting essential tasks required in the mining industry would be inconceivable. Since fatal accidents or serious injuries have to be anticipated in the event of a failure during blasting processes, handling explosives is, in principle, to be considered as high risk activity. Accident statistics show that the likelihood of injury when blasting is small, but if an accident occurs, the result is fatal or at the very least serious.

  • Identify the hazards and identify who is at risk
  • evaluate the risk
  • decide on safety measures
  • record the assessment
  • review

An essential feature in order to achieve this will be that the persons entrusted with blasting operations familiarize themselves in detail with the kinds of hazards at stake and arrange for the necessary safety measures to be adopted.

LECTURER: Alfred Maier

The primary purpose of rock fragmentation is to create rock fragments that can be loaded, hauled, crushed and milled efficiently in underground construction, quarrying and mining. To promote this the factors that influence fragmentation are described and the Kuz-Ram model introduced. This model is then applied to specific cases and its accuracy discussed. An improved fragment size distribution is then introduced, the Swebrec function and its use explored. The concept of cracks inside fragments and how they can improve comminution is then described and finally the Mine-to-mill concept.

In the second part fragmentation measurements are treated. First the accuracy of 2D image based methods is discussed and quarry and mine examples given. It is shown how to combine image based methods with sieving of lab samples to construct fragment size distributions for large quarry and open cast mine blasts. At the end 3D image methods are described, as are examples of their use and finally general recommendations given.

LECTURER: Finn Ouchterlony

Over the last twenty years, the intensive road construction in the Republic of Croatia, the construction of tunnels on highways, connecting roads and other roads, and deepening the bottom of a port, have resulted in intensive mining activity and imposed additional requirements on blasting operations due to the impact of blasting on the environment and surrounding facilities. The Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering was involved in many project aimed to determination of acceptable environmental influences of the blasting. Results of the project researches lead to determination of the criteria for permitted ground velocity oscillation values and defining parameters and blasting technology regarding the protection of surrounding structures. Special conditions in blasting, regarding the protection of surrounding structures, are determined by site conditions, and location and condition of surrounding structures, blasting technology and rock mass condition. The above-mentioned projects were carried out in various conditions and result that have raised from project experience secure the safe and environmental friendly blasting approach.

LECTURER: Mario Dobrilović

The lectures presented should give an overview about the most common explosives used in mining, construction and civil works today. New developments and improvements in emulsion technology for cartridged products as well as for bulk explosives are crucial to succeed when replacing dynamites for safety and economical reasons. The explosives properties and quality assurance have a very strong influence on the result of the blast. Software modeling as basis for blast optimization can visually show the impact of known and unknown factors like exact burden (face profiling) and drill deviation. The influence of geology, blast layout, drilling accuracy and initiation technique is discussed in detail. Reasons for drill deviation are most likely related to hole diameter, hole depth, drill rig and equipment used, experience of the operator and geological conditions. This topic is covered by several case examples in different open pit operations.

LECTURER: Mark Ganster

The lecture will cover fundamental aspects and theories of detonation and performance prediction of energetic materials, with emphasis on principles and possibilities of numerical modeling and simulation of these processes. The lecture will include the following topics:

  • Explosive chemical transformation, steady and unsteady processes
  • Basic detonation theories (C-J, ZND, non-equilibrium ZND models)
  • Initiation and propagation of detonation wave
  • Reactive flow models , incorporation of reaction kinetics into hydrocodes
  • Numerical modeling of initiation and propagation of detonation using hydrocodes and reactive flow models
  • Performance prediction by thermochemical equilibrium calculation
  • Chemical equilibrium in reactive multiphase and multicomponent systems
  • Equations of state of combustion/detonation products and their effect on accuracy of calculation
  • Expansion of detonation products, evaluation of detonation energy by thermochemical calculations
  • Non-ideal detonation: definition and causes, effect of charge diameter and confinement
  • Numerical modeling of non-ideal detonation using hydrocodes and thermochemical codes with incorporated kinetics thermochemical calculation

LECTURER: Muhamed Suceska

In the production process from the deposit to the final saleable rock product blast fragmentation might play quite an important role, especially when the size of the rock product is related to its economic value and when certain fraction of the broken rock (typically the fine material) cannot be sold or only at low prize. Apart from the material value, the particle size of the blasted rock may strongly influence also the productivity and the costs of the loading and the hauling process in a quarry or mining operation. In the lecture the basics of blast fragmentation will be addressed and the possibility to influence the particle size distribution of the blasted material will be discussed. A presentation of modern methods of on line blast fragmentation measurements, an explanation of their capabilities and their shortcomings will complete the lecture.

LECTURER: Peter Moser

In collaboration with colleagues from St.Petersburg Polytechnic University the new class of primary initiating substances with record-breaking low energy of ignition and sensitivity to mechanical influences is discovered; the technology of their reception is developed. The important practical result is creation of the first-ever exper-imental sample of new optical system of initiation of charges of the explosives which basic element is new precision action and safe in usage of the optical detonator. The system is the first which is characterized by two operating modes: transfer of laser radiation on optical paths and direct through air atmosphere.

The main issues of the lecture are the physical laws of initiating of explosives by laser irradiation. The back-ground of the optical initiation system creation, the results of experimental studies, including a new previously unknown property of the anomalously high sensitivity of some complex salts of metals and some energy-photosensitive compositions to the action of the laser pulse will be discussed. The general principles of syn-thesis of photosensitive compositions will be formulated; the theoretical and experimental results of the inves-tigations and their use in the initiation of the explosives will be shown. Some examples of using the system in practice will be demonstrated. The application of the photosensitive instead of the regular, advantages and disadvantages of experimental optical maser, detonators and optical system as a whole will be discussed.

LECTURER: Valerii Soboliev

Ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) explosives are simple, two-component explosives that consist of ammonium nitrate prills and fuel oil. ANFO is an explosive which, despite having a low velocity of detonation and detonation pressure, is characterised by a high blasting efficiency due to the large volume of gas generated. ANFO is the most common explosive for civil use in the fields of mining and civil engineering. Some properties of ANFO like poor water resistance, low density and low velocity of detonation can be improved by mixing ANFO with a certain percentage of emulsion. These explosives are called Heavy ANFO blends.

The main topic of the lecture is influence of initiation energy on velocity of detonation of ANFO and heavy ANFO blends. In the first test ANFO explosives were tested in steel pipes, and detonators and boosters of different masses and initiation energies were used for initiation. Velocity of detonation was measured by discontinues method. In the second test three types of primers were used for the initiation of ANFO and Heavy ANFO blend and the velocity of detonation was measured in situ by a continuous method. Based on the results of measurements, the relationship between way of initiation and velocity of detonation of ANFO and Heavy ANFO blend is established.

LECTURER: Vječislav Bohanek

Ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) explosives are simple, two-component explosives that consist of ammonium nitrate prills and fuel oil. ANFO is an explosive which, despite having a low velocity of detonation and detonation pressure, is characterised by a high blasting efficiency due to the large volume of gas generated. ANFO is the most common explosive for civil use in the fields of mining and civil engineering. Some properties of ANFO like poor water resistance, low density and low velocity of detonation can be improved by mixing ANFO with a certain percentage of emulsion. These explosives are called Heavy ANFO blends

The main topic of the lecture is influence of initiation energy on velocity of detonation of ANFO and heavy ANFO blends and the impact of position of initiation on the result of the blasting performance.

In the first tests ANFO explosives were tested in steel pipes, and detonators and boosters of different masses and initiation energies were used for initiation. Velocity of detonation was measured by discontinues method. In the second test three types of primers were used for the initiation of ANFO and Heavy ANFO blend and the velocity of detonation was measured in situ by a continuous method. Based on the results of measurements, the relationship between way of initiation and velocity of detonation of ANFO and Heavy ANFO blend is established.

The impact of position of initiation on the blasting performance is investigated “in situ” method of linear burden increase and also with clatering method.

LECTURER: Zvonimir Ester

INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO BLASTING

DIM ESEE 2016 SPONSOR